In the US, Congress and other educational policymakers have made some funding sources available only to schools that implement educational reforms with high-quality evidence of effectiveness. In an extensive meta-analysis, Borman et al (2003) reviewed research on the achievement effects of externally developed school improvement programs in the US known as whole-school or comprehensive school reforms (CSR). They also synthesised research on the effects of the 29 most widely implemented CSR. Borman et al identified three CSR models that met the highest standard of evidence to show that across varying contexts and varying study designs, their effects are relatively robust and, in general, can be expected to improve students’ test scores: Direct Instruction, School Development Program and Success for all.
Developer: Siegfried Engelmann (University of Oregon). Primary goal: Improve academic performance so that by fifth grade, students are at least a year and a half beyond grade level.
1. Field-tested reading, language arts, and math curricula.
2. Highly scripted lesson strategies.
3. Extensive writing.
4. Highly interactive lessons presented to small groups of students, flexible grouping students by performance level, frequent assessment of student progress, no pull-out programs.
For Grades K-6. Detailed materials provide by publisher.
School Development Program
Developer: James Comer, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
Primary goal: Mobilize entire community of adult caretakers to support students' holistic development to bring about academic success.
1. Three teams (school planning and management team, student and staff support team, parent team).
2. Three operations (comprehensive school plan, staff development plan, monitoring and assessment).
3. Three guiding principles (no-fault, consensus, collaboration).
For Grades K-12. Training and manual provided with teaching materials.
Success for All
Developer: Robert Slavin, Nancy Madden, and a team of developers from Johns Hopkins University. Now based at the Success for All Foundation in Baltimore.
Primary goal: Guarantee that every child will learn to read.
1. Research-based, prescribed curriculum in the areas of reading, writing, and language arts.
2. One-to-one tutoring, family support team, cooperative learning, on-site facilitator, and building advisory team.
For Grades Pre-K-8. Usually, all materials are provided. Training required.
A number of schools in Australia belong to the National Schools Network which has strong links to the work of the Coalition of Essential Schools:
Developer: Ted Sizer, Brown University, Providence,RI. Now based in Oakland, CA.
Primary goal: Help create schools where students learn to use their minds well.
1. Set of Ten Common Principles on which schools base their practice.
2. Personalized learning.
3. Mastery of a few essential subjects and skills.
4. Graduationb y exhibition.
5. Sense of community.
6. Instruction and organization depend on how each school interprets the Common Principles (may involve interdisciplinaryin struction, authentic projects, etc.).
For Grades K-12. No materials. Range of training options mostly provided by regional centers.
Comprehensive School Reform and Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Author(s): Geoffrey D. Borman, Gina M. Hewes, Laura T. Overman, Shelly Brown Source: Review of Educational Research, Vol. 73, No. 2 (Summer, 2003), pp. 125-230 Published by: American Educational Research Association